jueves, 26 de marzo de 2009

Teoría F1 de andar por casa (1): El difusor Brawn


En vista del éxito que tuvo mi anterior artículo sobre los difusores voy a hablar un poco más sobre ello de forma algo más teórica(si odias la físca no sigas leyendo).
Como ya sabréis la función de un difusor es crear carga aerodinámica que pegue el coche al suelo, lo que voy a intentar explicar es cómo se hace esto en teoría y cómo se ha utilizado esta teoría en los difusores de la discordia.

El fundamento de la carga aerodinámica generada en el fondo de un monoplaza radica en que cuanta menos presión haya debajo del coche más carga aerodinámica tenemos, podemos imaginarnos un caso sencillo, sería muy fácil poner un ventilador extrayendo el aire de debajo del coche, este se pegaría al asfalto igual que se pega el plástico al chorizo envasado al vacío, esto ya se hizo pero como ahora está prohibido poner ventiladores hay que recurrir a un método más sofisticado aunque menos eficiente.

El principio por el que funciona un difusor es el famoso principio del tubo de Venturi Link Lo que viene a decir que si un río se estrecha el agua baja más rápido, y como consecuencia la fuerza que ejerce el rio sobre las orillas y el fondo es menor, lo que se hace en un F1 es algo asi, el coche está diseñado para recoger la mayor candidad de aire y hacerla pasar por debajo del coche, de ahí los morros elevados, cuanto mas aire recoge más rápido pasa éste por debajo del coche (imaginad un embudo) la consecuencia de este aumento de velocidad en la parte inferior es que el coche se pega al asfalto, esto es conocido como efecto Venturi.


Imaginad que la parte estrecha son los bajos del coche

Video ilustrativo y gracioso:


La ecuación que rige el efecto de tubo de Venturi es:

Donde lo que importa es la P(presión) y la v(velocidad del aire) nos interesa crear bajas presiones debajo del coche, recordar el envasado al vacío, y también interesa aumentár la velocidad del aire.

Se demuestra que la velocidad a la que circula el aire es mayor cuanto menor sea la superficie por donde circula y por tanto mayor será la carga generada, y también se puede demostrar que si dividimos esta superficie en varias partes el efecto de succión que se genera es mayor, por lo tanto ya podemos empezar a hablar de los difusores de un F1:

El efecto nocivo de acelerar el aire por debajo del coche es que todo ese aire debes devolverlo al medio sin que se genere la poco recomendable fuerza de arrastre o drag, si mueves el brazo dentro del agua notarás que cuanto más rápido lo hagas más te cuesta, esa fuerza que notamos es lo que se quiere evitar al colocar un difusor, con él hacemos que el aire que viene con mucha energía se ordene convenientemente de forma laminar y se despegue del coche lo más fácilmente posible, podríamos colocarnos un “difusor” en el brazo y notar que el brazo se mueve con más soltura dentro del agua, en los F1 es algo parecido con el añadido de que además, gracias a su forma generan la depresión tan deseada.
Aclaración by Gaspar: El difusor hace que se cree carga aerodinámica en el eje trasero porque el aire que va por la parte superior del difusor va más lento (al aumentar la sección por la que éste circula) que el que va por la parte inferior porque la sección hace que el aire inferior deba hacer un recorrido superior en el mismo tiempo (al igual que los alerones o las alas de avión, es el principio de Bernoulli).

Aquí vemos el fondo plano del Ferrari, podemos ver como el aire se canaliza hacia el difusor:

En Brawn tienen el difusor con una mayor superficie, lo que de por si da mayor agarre, además tiene esa superficie dividida en dos partes diferenciadas lo que como he dicho genera más agarre aún, y por si fuera poco la mayoría del flujo de aire sale por la abertura superior lo que hace que el aire vaya a mayor velocidad porque no sufre roces con la carretera que, como es lógico distorsionaría su avance haciendo que se generase menos carga.
Por si fuera poco todo esto, parece ser que el suelo del Brawn no es plano completamente y el aire que pasa por debajo es canalizado convenientemente hacia la abertura superior, como consecuencia, al pasar más aire por el hueco este pasa a mayor velocidad y genera más carga de nuevo.
Todas estas maravillas son muy dificiles de copar ya que el agarre no lo da el difusor en si sino que el fondo plano del coche es un todo en el que va incluido el difusor, no es tan sencillco como quitar este y poner el otro.
Lo que ha logrado Ross Brawn es conseguir que el aire pase de una forma más eficiente por los bajos del coche y acelerar la salida del aire con un aumento casi 0 de fuerza de arrastre, es decir “energía gratis” Es una ganga eso seguro, pero lo que no se es si es legal.

64 comentarios:

Anónimo dijo...

Esclarecedora y genial explicación. Gracias por abrir los ojos de tantos aficionados que quieren ver pero, en su ignorancia, no pueden. Tanto oir hablar de difusores... sin poder verlos. Muy bueno e instructivo. Gracias de nuevo.
Muy buen blog.

mrproper dijo...

Empezamos mal tú y yo, o no con muy buen pie, pero eres un tío competente. Me gusta tu blog y lo visito todos los días aunque no siempre participe. Pero el post de hoy ha sido muy interesante, y bien explicado que es lo que importa.

Salu2

Anónimo dijo...

buena explicacion y buen blog :), no suelo comentar pero te sigo a diario,saludos.

Rural dijo...

¡Magnífico!
Como ya han dicho antes... mucho se habla por ahí de difusores, pero sólo aquí me he enterado perfectamente de qué va esto.
¡Enhorabuena!

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andorrano: antonio cuantos días eh! aunque no te escriba sepas que visito el blog cada día...ya estamos casi casi para que arranquen los motores!!! ya era hora después de tanto tiempo excelente l explicación de los 'difusos' difusores...y por cierto tengo ganas de ver lo que ocurre en el primer safty car que seegurísimo que en albert park hay más de uno y de dos! tu blog es el mejor crac!! nos vemos en el asfalto!

JournalF1 dijo...

Excelente explicación. Y bonito logo el tuyo. Lotus!!

El problema con el difusor de BRAWN GP, radica en esa sección central que lo divide en dos. Aparte las protestas de los teams se han centrado en su fondo, "no plano". El efeto venturi es el que utiliza el R29 en toda la extensión de su morro.

Un efecto que bien aprovechado puede generar el doble de carga(sución) que un ala convencional.

Bueno gracias al blog de he conocido el tuy, y te felicito, por el mismo.

Saludos.

Manuel Ángel Gil dijo...

TE enlazo para ya mismitos.

Mag(nifico) trabajo, antonio

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Antonio dijo...

Gracias por vuestros comentarios, no pensaba yo que a la gente le interesase el tema físico de la F1, pero es un sorpresa agradable.

mrproper: nada nada pelillos a la mar :)
andorrano:hay que comentar mas ¿e? jeje

Gaspar dijo...

Ante todo me gustaría felicitarte por el blog. Soy un aficionado de la f1 y la verdad es que es difícil encontrar fuentes de información buenas. He estado leyendo tus post desde la pretenporada y me parecen muy interesantes, pero ... el post de hoy no es demasiado preciso.

vamos por partes. Efectivamente los difusores son unos elementos clave en la dinámica de fluidos. La dinámica de fluidos se basa en la ecuación de Bernuilli. Pero me parece que NO se ha descrito bien el efecto Venturi.
"si un río se estrecha el agua baja más rápido, y como consecuencia la fuerza que ejerce el río sobre las orillas y el fondo es menor". La verdad es que es todo lo contrario. En un caudal fluido cuando la sección se estrecha el fluido pasa más rápido y según la ecuación de Bernuilli crea una depresión (como muy bien informa la ilustración del post), o sea, cuando el río se estrecha la velocidad del agua es mayor y la presión menor y eso es el efecto suelo (el ejemplo no es muy bueno ya que un río es un cauce abierto).
Por tanto los difusores se basan el el mismo efecto que el del ala de un avión.
El difusor hace que se cree carga aerodinámica en el eje trasero por que el aire que va por la parte superior del difusor va más lento que el que va por la parte inferior (pq la sección hace que el aire inferior deba hacer un recorrido superior en el mismo tiempo). Esta es la razón por la que se crea una fuerza vertical hacia abajo con los difusores.

Espero haberme explicado bien. Un fuerte abrazo y a seguir así.

Antonio dijo...

Tines razon quiza no estan del todo claro con tu persiso agrego esta aclaración :) gracias!

Anónimo dijo...

Perdona Gaspar, a que te refieres con parte superior e inferior? Porque el aire inferior y el superior no tienen que hacer ese recorrido en el mismo tiempo. El difusor lo que hace es acelerar el aire en la garganta, creando una fuerza de succion. :-|

Dani dijo...

Hola, felicidades por el blog.
Posiblemente me equivoque, pero viendo la foto del blog en la que sale el coche levantado creo que lo que hace el difusor es volver a poner en contacto el aire que va por debajo del coche y el que va por arriba, para que no se rompa la capa limite antes, y genere un vacio detras del coche. se intenta hacer la forma de gota para ser mas aerodinamoco. Esto no da mas agarre, el agarre lo da el efecto suelo que antes han mencionado haciedo que el coche este lo mas pegado al suelo posible.

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